Kishore Balasubramanian* and Ananthamoorthy N.P. Pages 82 - 90 ( 9 )
Background: Diagnosis of ophthalmologic and cardiovascular systems most often rely on the prerequisite step of segmentation of retinal blood vessels. Analysis of vascular structures in the retinal fundus images can aid in the early screening or detection of many ophthalmological diseases like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, vein occlusions, hemorrhages etc. In most cases, optic nerve gets damaged causing a blind spot. In this paper, a method of blood vessel segmentation using improved SOM (iSOM) and ANN classifier is presented.Methods: Morphological operations are carried out to enhance the input image. Clustering of pixels is done using improved Kohonen Self- Organizing Map (SOM) based on texture feature wherein a new node is introduced and new learning methodology is adopted using constrained weight updation. Finally, modified Otsu method is designed to label the output neuron class as vessel and non -vessel. Results: Segmentation is tested on public image sets, High Resolution Fundus (HRF) images and DRIONS-DB databases for Accuracy, Recall rate, Precision, F-Score, AUC and JC. The results achieve an appreciable level of accuracy (~97%) as compared to other similar methods of classification. The average time taken is less in estimating the neuron class and is about 12.1 sec per image when evaluated on Intel Core i5 CPU running at 2.30 GHz coupled with 4 GB RAM. The mean squared error for the segmented images is found to be in the range of 4-5%. Conclusion: Segmentation of retinal blood vessels based on artificial neural networks employing iSOM preserves the topology consuming less time for constrained weight updation achieving better results than SOM. A new model to detect vessels can be developed by concatenating iSOMs in parallel for multi class functions.
Fundus images, vessel segmentation, neural network, morphological processing, SOM, Otsu’s method
Dr. Mahalingam College of Engineering & Technology, Pollachi, Hindusthan College of Engineering & Technology, Coimbatore